Apple Cider Vinegar

Apple Cider Vinegar

Herbal anti-ageing health has used apple cider vinegar for ages since it contains wonderful, and even “magical” properties.

Apple Cider Vinegar is used all over the world to assist with problems such as curbing appetite, detoxification agent helping to detoxify the body, weight loss. Apple cider vinegar is good slimming, diets, boosting the immune system, supplying amino acids, minerals, vitamins, aiding metabolism to burn and metabolize food effectively.

Apple cider vinegar and circulation and skin

Apple cider vinegar helps with arthritis, and is great for your skin and helps with blood circulation, and strengthen the arteries. Apple cider vinegar also helps with marks and wounds, (also assists in healing deep and open wounds) varicose veins, thread veins and skin lesions improve because of the balancing effect the apple cider vinegar has on the collagen matrix and supportive structures.

Apple cider vinegar and your metabolism and immune system

We could all do with an anti-ageing health supplement to keep our immune systems working well, to rev up our metabolism with resultant weight loss, and to add vitality and energy. With our metabolism working properly we also help with detoxifying the body.

Apple cider vinegar and arthritis

People claim that apple cider vinegar also helps with arthritis and has heralded apple cider vinegar with centella as miraculous.

Apple cider vinegar and cholesterol

The apple cider vinegar with centella contains fibres and assist with getting rid of cholesterol and people also use it (a capful) in water as a final hair rinse. We should keep cholesterol in check to have optimum health. Apple Cider Vinegar is also taken by people to assist in high blood pressure (hypertension) – and we all know how detrimental hypertension (high blood pressure) can be to our bodies.

Vitality and good health

Apple cider vinegar is also used for headaches, tension, anxiety, stress – promoting vitality and energy. Apple Cider Vinegar is truly a wonderful health product.

It is a superb anti-ageing product to positively influence your health, appetite, metabolism, weight, diet, slimming, high blood pressure, (hypertension), skin tone, veins, immune system, energy and vitality levels, cholesterol level, blood circulation etc and our general wellbeing.

Apple cider vinegar is made from a blend of juices pressed from chopped apples. As early as 400 BC the father of medicine – Hippocrates – used it to treat his patients. Today in the USA alone, over 65 million litres of apple cider is consumed mainly because of its phenomenal health properties ranging from helping body metabolism.

Amino acids

Apple cider has acetic acid, plus ion-futynic lactic and propionic acids. It boosts the immune system and is both an antiseptic and anti-biotic. It is the richest source of amino acids known. There are a lot of people who also take apple cider vinegar as a natural herbal appetite suppressant when busy with weight loss and dieting.

Low in salt, sugar and fat

It adds fibre and is low in salt, sugar, and fat. Apple cider vinegar helps digestion and improves the metabolism of the body. These properties are great when busy with weight loss and detoxifying in your quest to achieve an anti-ageing perfect body.

Apple cider vinegar contains:

  • chlorine
  • calcium
  • iron
  • magnesium
  • potassium
  • sulphur
  • sodium
  • silicon

The vinegar is made from fresh natural apples that contain pectin – a soluble fibre which stays in the body longer. These fibres bind themselves to the cholesterol globules and pull them out of the body – and everybody knows the value of lower cholesterol in the body.

Special health hints:

  • Arthritis
    • Mix two teaspoons of apple cider vinegar and two teaspoons of honey in a glass of water daily, as a diet supplement.
  • Digestion and weight control
    • Try two level dessert spoons of bran mixed with two teaspoons of apple cider vinegar each morning, sprinkled onto porridge, yoghurt or fruit.
  • High blood pressure
    • Try two teaspoons apple cider vinegar mixed in water and take each morning.

Primarily and particularly good for the circulation for skin ailments and rejuvenation, this extraordinary herb is continuously astounding medical science. .As a bonus, it stimulates clear thinking, increases brain power and slows the ageing process.


  • Weight loss and suppressing the appetite, boosting the immune system.
  • Act as antiseptic and anti-biotic.
  • Rich source of amino acids and rich in vitamins and minerals.
  • Adds fibre and low in salt, sugar and fat.
  • Helps digestion and improves metabolism.
  • Decreasing cholesterol, arthritis and high blood pressure.
  • Good for circulation and detoxifying the body, stimulates thinking while helping to slow the ageing process.

The Truth about Comedogenic Ingredients and Acne Prone Skin 

There is so much misinformation about comedogenic ingredients out there and I know acne-prone are very concerned about it, so I wanted to shed some light on the topic. 

There are a few key things that you should know about this misleading word. 


Defining “Comedogenic” 

It’s easy to define in theory but hard to pin down in practice. 

A comedogenic ingredient means that it clogs pores. This doesn’t always happen quickly, and it can take months of using a comedogenic product before clogging is noticeable. Also, very important and this is where the problem comes in: individual skin chemistry can determine the extent of an ingredient’s comedogenicity, so it is highly variable between people.  

Some things that complicate the idea of “comedogenic” drastically: 

With a “comedogenic” ingredient or formula, one person may have no reaction, while another may have excessively clogged pores in a few weeks. Some people are just more sensitive to certain ingredients and react differently, for various reasons. In acne-prone skins, this is also true. Some may break out with algae extract for example, but others do fine.  

Even ingredients that are not typically comedogenic can become so by a person’s own unique skin chemistry. 

Human sebum is naturally somewhat comedogenic (especially in the case of acne-prone skin, which often presents with abnormally sticky sebum), so even if clients who are prone to clogging avoid all likely comedogenic products, they are not necessarily guaranteed protection against comedos. 

There is NO definitive way to test for comedogenicity. The test that is most often referred to is the rabbit’s ear test, where ingredients were applied to the inner ear of rabbits, and follicular keratosis (the process which comedogenic ingredients increase and which causes pore clogging) was analysed both visually and microscopically after a few weeks.  

The question remains whether a rabbit’s ear is a good proxy for all types of acne-prone skins, and it probably isn’t.  

Despite all the lists you find on the internet, the truth is, there is no DEFINITIVE list of comedogenic ingredients. You can see this in the discrepancies between the lists. Some have ingredients others don’t, and the same ingredient can have variable comedogenic ratings depending on which list you refer to. 

Here’s the big kicker though – formulations matter a lot. A formula is not just a sum of its parts—ingredient combinations can turn a comedogenic ingredient into a noncomedogenic ingredient and vice versa. The same thing goes for ingredient percentage – a comedogenic ingredient included at a smaller percentage can easily become harmless and non-comedogenic. Of course, depending upon the ingredient, the concentration of that ingredient within the formula is more important for some ingredients than others. I will offer case studies below.  

Also, the method in which an ingredient is extracted and processed plays a role. Whether an ingredient was refined (and how, since there are different methods to refining), hydrogenated (quick definition: Chemically combining an unsaturated compound with hydrogen. Liquid vegetable oils are often hydrogenated to turn them into solids) or fractionated (removing or altering the percentage of chemical components of a material through heat or hydrolysis) can dramatically change its comedogenicity ranking. Some case studies will be included below to give concrete examples. The source and the quality and purity of the raw material can also affect its rating. The concerns here are especially valid for natural oils and butter. Obviously, these variables cannot be easily determined by reading an ingredient list. 

In the words of Albert Kligman, pioneer of the comedogenicity scale: 

“One cannot determine from a reading of the ingredients whether a given product will be acnegenic or not. What matters solely is the behaviour of the product itself.” – Kligman, 1996 

So even the inventor of the comedogenicity scale has flat-out said that it shouldn’t be used to screen ingredients lists! 

Comedogenicity is totally unregulated. The authorities do define a comedogenic ingredient as one that is known to clog pores. However, they do not define a list of ingredients that need to be excluded for a product to use the term “noncomedogenic.” Therefore, any company can make the claim that its product is noncomedogenic and still comply with the guidelines. In addition, no standardized testing and no watchdog groups exist to catch misuse of the claim. 


What’s wrong with the comedogenicity scale? 

The problem is that the studies that produced the comedogenicity ratings don’t reflect real-world usage, for a number of reasons: 


In an ideal world, we’d test every single product on every single person’s face, and develop a definitive comedogenicity rating list based on that. But this would be impossible – it would cost too much, there are too many products, and getting a lot of people to only use the one product and not change their daily routine for weeks or months at a time would be a mammoth task. 


 The most common test for comedogenicity is the rabbit ear test, pioneered in cosmetics testing by two famous dermatologists, Albert Kligman and James Fulton, in the 1970s. This involves applying a substance to the inner ear of a rabbit and waiting a few weeks to see if any clogged pores formed. Because rabbit ears are more sensitive than human skin, they reacted to comedogenic products faster, which was more convenient.  

Unfortunately, this also meant that there were lots of false positives, where ingredients that are non-comedogenic in humans would be found to be comedogenic in the hypersensitive rabbit model. Additionally, in the original tests, the scientists didn’t realise that there are naturally enlarged pores in rabbit ears. Some results counted these as acne, leading to even more false positives. 

The most famous false positive is petroleum jelly (petrolatum or Vaseline, which was corrected in the late 1980s, but this was debated until the mid-1990s – that’s why the myth that Vaseline and oily products cause pimples is still so pervasive.  

This wasn’t the first time the rabbit ear tests were questioned – conflicting results were commonplace, and comedogenicity lists frequently disagreed with each other (and still do).  

More recently in 2007, dermatologists Mirshahpanah and Maibach went so far as to say: 

“[the rabbit ear] model is unable to accurately depict the acnegenic potential of chemical compounds, and is therefore only valuable for distinguishing absolute negatives.” – Mirshahpanah and Maibach, 2007 



If rabbit ears don’t reflect what happens on human skin, then the obvious solution is to test on humans, right? Yes…but there are problems there too! 

Skin from the subject’s back is usually used. Back skin is very different from facial skin – for example, facial skin has a lot more hair follicles, and it’s exposed to much more sunlight. Whether they’ll react the same way to products is questionable.  

Human tests also use people with large pores who are prone to getting pimples. Will someone with small pores necessarily react the same way? What about people with medium sized pores? 

The ingredients to be tested are swabbed on and occluded by covering with a bandage after application, which is not what you’d typically do with your skincare products. 

The tests were done on relatively small samples (typically less than 10 subjects). 

So again, the usefulness of the results of these tests – whether we can apply these ratings in our everyday usage of skin care products and cosmetics – has been overstated. 


About Parabens

I’m sure you’ve heard of parabens. They are broad-spectrum preservatives used in many mainstream cosmetics to keep beasties such as bacteria, mould and yeast out of your beauty products. There has been a LOT of controversy over them in the last decade since a study linked them to breast cancer tumours.  

Many brands now proudly advertise that their products are ‘paraben-free’ (despite this no longer being allowed under the new EU Cosmetics Regulations). However, one issue which isn’t talked about much is the fact that parabens are also used as preservatives in foods. Could you be eating parabens?  

What is a paraben? 

Parabens are esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid, which is where their name comes from. Most commonly used parabens include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben and heptylparaben, but this isn’t an exhaustive list. All the parabens in commercial use are made synthetically although they are generally nature-identical (i.e. they are exactly the same as the ones found in nature). 

What is the controversy? 

In 2004, researchers found parabens in breast cancer tumours. Although there isn’t a proven link between parabens and breast cancer, the research certainly pointed the finger in that direction. It was then picked up the mainstream media who vilified parabens and put most consumers off for life, leading hundreds if not thousands of skincare companies to phase out parabens as preservatives altogether. 

These studies have since been brought into question and various regulatory bodies and cancer charities have come out with firm statements to say that parabens do not cause cancer (see this statement by Cancer Research UK  o r this statement by the American Cancer Society). 

There is also a concern regarding parabens’ oestrogen-mimicking ability. Following a Danish ban on the use of propyl- and butyl parabens in products for children under the age of three, the European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety concluded this ban might have some merit in the case of children below the age of 6 months. They could not exclude a risk from certain parabens present in leave-on cosmetic products designed for application on the nappy area given a baby’s immature metabolism and risk of damaged skin (e.g. nappy rash). They went on to say that safety concerns could legitimately be raised. (note that this doesn’t stop baby wipes being sold which contain parabens!) 

For a paraben to make it all the way into your body via your personal care products is a long and difficult route. This doesn’t mean parabens don’t absorb into your body, but it’s not the most direct route to get there. If you wanted to get parabens into your body quicker, you’d eat them. 


E is for… 

Just like cosmetics, foods also need preservation to avoid bacteria, moulds and yeasts from growing in your meals and drinks. We’ve become so accustomed to food lasting for a long time in the fridge or on the shelf that we often don’t stop to think how this is achieved. The food industry often employs ancient techniques such as salting, pickling, smoking or freezing, but sometimes they use antimicrobial chemical agents instead. 

Many of these chemicals are synthetically derived and sometimes (not always) mimic their natural counterparts. Examples of chemicals used to preserve food include calcium propionate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sulphites, disodium EDTA, formaldehyde (usually in solution), glutaraldehyde (kills insects), ethanol, and methylchloroisothiazolinone. Yum.  

For those of you who regularly read up on your cosmetics labels, you may recognise some of these names as they are also sometimes used to preserve your personal care products. 

Parabens are another example of a food preservative, although they’re not called parabens when used in food – they’re given E-numbers instead. The most commonly-used parabens in food are methylparaben (food additive E218) and ethylparaben (E214) with the European Food Safety Authority setting an Acceptable Daily Intake of 0-10mg per kilogram of body weight per day for methyl- and ethylparaben. Other parabens in foods include Propylparaben (E216), Heptylparaben (E209) and Butylparaben. 

Typical products which contain parabens for preservation include beer, sauces, desserts, soft drinks, processed fish, jams, pickles, frozen dairy products, processed vegetables and flavouring syrups. 

Parabens have been used as food preservatives for many decades and this is presumably one of the reasons that little to no information is available about their use in certain foods and our dietary exposure. Historically, food manufacturers and food safety agencies have generally assumed that these chemicals exhibit low toxicity and that we shouldn’t worry about them. 

A team of researchers recently decided to examine the use of parabens in food in more detail. Scientists at the New York State Department of Health and the Department of Environmental Health Sciences, along with the University of New York at Albany  published a study  earlier this year in which they revealed that parabens were found in 90% of the foodstuffs they tested  from local markets in the Albany area in New York. 

These scientists tested over 250 samples of food from various shops and markets around Albany. According to, they collected juices, soft drinks, alcoholic beverages, infant formula, dairy products such as milk, yoghurt, cheese and ice cream, oils, fats, bread, flours, rice, pasta, corn, fruits, baked goods, meats, shellfish and seafood and many others for testing. They then analysed them for their paraben content in the lab, focusing specifically on butyl parabens, benzyl paraben, propyl parabens, methyl parabens, and ethyl parabens. 

Apparently pancake syrup contained the highest levels of methylparabens out of all the foods measured. Others foods that contained high levels included muffins, iced tea, pudding and turkey roast. Highest levels of propyl parabens were found in turkey breasts, yoghurt, turkey roast and apple pie. The highest levels of ethyl parabens were found in red wine. The researchers found parabens in 98% of grain foods, 91% of fish and shellfish, 87% of dairy products, and 85% of fruit products.  

The researchers then looked at the exposure levels of various age groups and found that infants were taking in the highest level of parabens on a daily basis per kilogram of body weight. They determined that infants were likely to consume 940 nanograms of parabens per kilo of  body weight per day, toddlers 879, children 470, teenagers 273 and adults 307 (Liao et al., 2013). 

At this point, it would be easy for us to lean back smugly and say “well, that’s the States, I’m sure OUR food isn’t riddled with parabens”. In our global economy with globalised food production, that would be a naive attitude to take. Chances are that the foods you eat on a regular basis contain parabens as preservatives. 

What I’m trying to say here is that many consumers put a lot of effort into avoiding parabens in their skincare at all cost… only to be ingesting seemingly large quantities in their food and drink.  


Naturally occurring parabens 

Certain parabens are found in numerous plants around the world. This finding makes perfect sense of course, as plants have evolved anti-microbial agents in order to protect them from fungal or microbial attack. 

Plants which are particularly well-known for their naturally occurring parabens include blueberries, mango, barley, strawberries, black currants, peaches, carrots, onions, cocoa beans, vanilla, to name but a few well-known foodstuffs.   

In fact, according to some research, (see Anthony Dweck’s Paraben Compendium) 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (which forms the basis of parabens) is the most widely distributed aromatic organic acid in the vegetable kingdom. In other words, they’re everywhere. 

I’m sure your head is spinning after reading all that. Everything we’ve been taught to believe about parabens might actually be a load of hype. Or is it? 

Parabens have the ability to slightly mimic oestrogen, much like other plants. Putting the whole argument about parabens and cancer to one side for a minute, there is a valid concern that the oestrogen-mimicking aspect of parabens may be increasing early onset of puberty in girls. 

Nay-sayers may immediately jump to the defence of parabens by saying that they are found everywhere in nature and that we regularly eat them in our blueberry and vanilla pancakes (smothered in methylparaben syrup). 

However, it’s important to remember that this glut of synthetic food preservatives didn’t exist until a hundred years ago – parabens have only been used as preservatives since the 1920s. Until that point, people were generally still making their own foods with fresh unprocessed ingredients. And as we know, this habit continued for many years until recent decades when we have come to rely more and more on processed foods.  

Paired with the recent findings by Liao et al. (2013) which showed that parabens were found in 90% of food and drink tested, it strikes me that an ingredient which may be relatively innocuous by itself in small quantities is now potentially being used as a preservative in virtually all processed foods. After all, these preservatives are low cost and it is undoubtedly more commercially viable to use parabens than to use honey, sugar, smoke, or salt to preserve food (to name but a few examples), or to change people’s eating habits in line with seasonality. 

Our bodies may, therefore, be taking in many more parabens than ever before, which may lead to our hormones getting confused. Research is ongoing to look into this in more detail. I don’t have all the answers.  

In my opinion, the next step for food manufacturers should be to think about whether they are over-using certain preservatives. Food prices are often artificially kept low, but perhaps it’s time that we start to demand good quality ingredients, eat fresh seasonal foods and stop expecting foods AND skincare to stay on the shelf without spoilage for years on end. 

Food manufacturers managed for thousands of years before synthetic parabens showed up on the scene to preserve their jams and beer. Before that, people ate products that were preserved using more natural techniques or they ate fresh, seasonal foods and didn’t need to keep food in the cupboard for many months before it was eaten. 


Apply Skin Care in the Right Order   

Apply Skin Care in the Right Order 

You might have the most amazing skincare routine in the world, but if you’re applying your products in the wrong order, you can prevent your skin from receiving the full benefits.  

This can not only diminish the overall effectiveness of your routine, but it could even leave your skin irritated, dehydrated or broken out. Here’s the correct order to apply your skincare products: 



Step 1: Makeup Remover 

Start with a makeup-removing cleanser, which could be an oil, foam, milk or micellar water.  



Step 2: Cleanser 

Use a gentle, sulphate-free face wash to perform a second cleanse. 

Once your makeup is off, it’s time to actually clean your skin. You can start here in the mornings. In the evenings, this step will also ensure that you haven’t left any makeup remover residue on your skin (where it could lead to irritations or breakouts). 



Step 3: Exfoliator and/or Toner 

Acid-based toners gently exfoliate and prep the skin to receive treatment products. 

Post-cleansing, I’m a big advocate for daily mild exfoliation with alpha- or beta-hydroxy acids. As long as you’re not overdoing it, you’ll see such a positive difference with your skin texture, tone and clarity. Plus, this step will help to remove any dead cells that can interfere with the absorption of your other products. 

If you’d prefer a mechanical and enzimatic exfoliation, powder exfoliators such as foam powders or wahing foam combined with abrasives like salt or sugar, etc. are a gentle way to physically lift off dead skin cells.  

When you’re not exfoliating, a balancing toner is a good idea as a final cleansing step, to restore your skin’s pH and prep it for treatment products any flower waters could be highly recommended. 


Step 4: Treatment Products 

Treatment products should go on bare skin before moisturizers. 

Here’s where the most active products in your routine come in. You want them on clean, bare skin without a lot of dead cell build-up, so they can have the best chance of penetrating deeply.  

Use any acne spot treatments, antioxidant serums, treatment oils, leave-on hydroxy acids etc. at this time. Antioxidants can be applied morning and night. 



Step 5: Hydrating Mist or Serum 

Hydrating serums and mists should be applied before heavier creams and oils. 

I think everyone can benefit from incorporating hydrating mists and serums into their routine. If you’re normal to oily, their lightweight humectants may provide all the moisture you need, especially if you’re applying makeup next. They’re also essential for those with dry or dehydrated skin, as a first layer underneath heavier creams and oils. 

You should start with mist, layering it under the serum. (You can also mist again before you add moisturizer, oil or makeup, to really pack in the moisture.)  


Step 6: Chemical Sunscreen 

Chemical sunscreen should be applied before moisturizer. I don’t recommend chemical sunscreen, but if you’re going to use one, you should ideally put it on before your daytime moisturizer. That’s because its working process and effect-mechanism, so you don’t want any creamy, oily products to hinder absorption and/or dilute its absorption and reduce your protection. 


Step 7: Moisturizer and Eye Cream 

Moisturizers help quench dry skin and can double as eye cream. 

Next comes moisturizer, if you need it. Not everyone does! If your skin is normal to oily, you may be able to get away with a serum alone. Also keep in mind that when face creams are too rich and heavy, they can often trigger breakouts.  



Step 8: Face Oil 

Face oil acts as a barrier to prevent moisture loss. 

Dry and fragile skin clients should use a face oil as last moisturization step. This is because it acts like a barrier, it reduces water loss.  

If your skin is normal to oily you have to apply oil before your moisturizer, or you can add your oil to your cream and apply them blended.  

Persons with acne prone or with really problematic, inflamed skin should use treatment oils as spot treatment as described in “Step 4”. 


Step 9: Mineral Makeup and Mineral Sunscreen 

Mineral sunscreen needs to sit on top of the skin to be effective, therefore it should be the last skincare product you apply during the daytime. Unlike chemical filters, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide work by sitting on top of the skin and reflecting away the UV rays.  



Step 10: Foundation 

Finally, you can apply traditional foundation, if you wear it! 



Layer your skincare products the right way for maximum effectiveness. 

I hope this helps demystify the layering process!  

When in doubt, the general rule is to apply your products in order of thinnest to thickest. Anything light and liquidy will have an easier time penetrating bare skin, while thicker creams and oils should be saved for the end, to lock everything in. 

Also consider which product or treatment is the most important in your routine. If you need serious results, apply it before you hydrate or protect, so it won’t have to sink through as many layers to do its job. 


HAIR VIO! (High frequency device)

Month to month, I am always thinking about what to write, what readers might find interesting, which topics might eventually help the work of our partners, the communication with their own customers, guests, and so on. It would be easier if we had feedbacks, questions, or topic ideas. Lacking these, I can only write about things that keep me interested right now.

For now, I have chosen hair and scalp care, as one of my products in the lab-phase targets the treatment of these, therefore I have been deeply immersed in this topic for a long time.

The other reason why I chose this topic is our new 6:1 electro cosmetic appliance, which includes, among other things, the high-frequency “magic” device, VIO, which has long been a proven tool for the treatment of the scalp as well.

It is specifically indicated for the treatment of seborrheic, oily scalp, dandruff and hair loss.

Its operating principle is well known; as a result of its use, blood vessels dilate, local blood supply to the skin improves, nutrient supply of the cells and through this, skin regeneration increases. Ozone (O3) arisen on the surface of the skin disinfects, tightens the pores, reduces the function of sebaceous glands, offering a remedy to the oily scalp problem.

Applying it as a course of treatments, it significantly improves the overall condition of the scalp. During the treatment, the skin is exposed to direct electrical effects, which triggers physical and chemical stimuli in it, which then results in the above-mentioned enhanced blood supply and cellular metabolism, and it revitalizes the “sleeping” hair follicles, which makes it an efficient tool for the treatment of hair loss and it stimulates hair growth.

The oxygen molecules that get on the skin through the glass electrodes help remove the dead cells of the scalp, resulting in a significant improvement in the penetration of different scalp care and scalp nourishing products, and enhancing their effect.

Having mentioned hair loss, it might be worth noting that this problem is not just genetics! Of course, the role of genetics is not disputable, but it is good to know the 8 external factors that play a significant role in hair loss, and that paying attention to these, we might control and somewhat slow down the processes.

These factors are:

  1. USE OF POOR QUALITY HAIR CARE PRODUCTS – Pay attention to the ingredients, as hair care products are particularly exposed to various user requirements, such as volume increase, silky touch, easy to comb, and so on, and to reach these, producers have to turn to chemicals that have bad effect on scalp and hair.
  2. STRESS – this is the thing that we always pick and blame about everything. With a good reason this time as well, as unfortunately, it causes an imbalance in the chemical system of the body, which damages the health of our hair as well.
  3. HOT WATER – no matter how pleasant a hot shower might be, unfortunately, hot water doesn’t do good to our hair and to our skin, as it removes natural oils from the skin and hair, and dries the follicles.
  4. HOT HAIR DRYER – Like hot water, it is harmful, weakens follicles and hence the hairs.
  5. COMBING WET HAIR – Freshly washed hair is sensitive and less resistant. Many of you may have observed that when you comb wet hair with a brush or comb, more hair falls out than when you brush or comb dry hair. This is exactly the reason why, so it is worth waiting for a little with the brush after hair wash!
  6. TOO TIGHT PONYTAIL – Wearing a too tight ponytail or bun regularly also weakens and breaks hairs.
  7. PHARMACEUTICALS – Unfortunately many medicines can cause hair loss. It is worth paying attention to this, and avoiding such medicines from the therapy.
  8. INAPPROPRIATE DIET – A diet that is poor in vitamins, minerals and trace elements can also lead to hair loss, or it can accelerate the process of baldness. Among others, Omega 3 , vitamin C, vitamin B5 and vitamin A, iron, folic acid and beta carotene are essential for the health of our hair.

I suggest treating our guests’ scalps as well, providing them with advice and good quality caring products. The success is guaranteed, and it is not a bad business idea either!

I wish you all a pleasant weekend.

Gertrud Borbíró

What causes acne?!

What causes acne? 

The skin-care scenario: Before bed, you remove your makeup, cleanse your face, apply your skincare regimen of serums, toners, and creams, and snuggle up between the sheets to get your 8 hours of precious beauty sleep.  

The next morning, you hop out of bed to discover the beginnings of a monster zit. What gives? How did that sucker pop up? It wasn’t there the night before! 

Herewith I’m trying to debunk common myths about what causes blemishes, discover where whiteheads come from, and provide tips on acne solutions. 


A Hairy Situation 

Acne is actually a common disease of the hair follicles of the face (or chest, back, other affected body part). There is no single cause; hence, there is no universal solution. Acne can present itself as red, irritated zits, occluded pores (also referred to as “comedones”), cysts, or even boils.  


The Secret Life of a Pimple 

The life of a pimple begins around 2-3 weeks before it appears on the surface of the skin. It starts in your sebaceous hair follicles or pores. Deep within each follicle, your sebaceous glands work to produce sebum, the oil that keeps your skin moist and supple.  

As your skin renews itself, old skin cells die and shed. Normally, these cells shed gradually, making room for fresh new skin cells. But if cells are shed unevenly, they clump together with the skin’s natural oil to form a plug within the pore-like a cork in a bottle. 

This plug, or comedo, traps oil and bacteria inside the follicle and begins to swell as your skin continues its normal oil production process. 

 That’s when your body’s immune system kicks in, producing white blood cells to attack the bacteria – the end result is a pimple. 


Common Causes 

 When it comes to zits, there is no one “cause” but many factors at play which are beyond our control, such as: How often you shed skin cells which can change throughout your life. 

The amount of sebum that your skin produces which is affected by your hormone balance, which is often in flux — especially for women. 

Each of these factors can vary dramatically between individuals and while you can’t control them, understanding these factors can help you find the most effective solution. 



Many experts agree that there is a hereditary component to acne. Take a good look at one (or both) of your parents, and chances are, you have similar skin issues. Genetics can play a big part in the development and persistence of spots. 



This is the biggest offender! For most blemish sufferers, skin problems start at puberty, when the body begins to produce hormones called androgens. These hormones cause the sebaceous glands to enlarge, which is a natural part of the body’s development. In blemish sufferers, however, the sebaceous glands are overstimulated by androgens, which can sometimes persist well into adulthood. Androgens are also responsible for flare-ups during the menstrual cycle and, for some people during pregnancy. 


Extra sebum 

When the sebaceous gland is stimulated by androgens, it produces extra sebum (oil). As the sebum makes its way up the follicle towards the skin’s surface, it mixes with common skin bacteria and dead skin cells that have been shed from the lining of the follicle. While this process is normal, the presence of extra sebum in the follicle increases the chances of clogging which can cause pimples. 


Follicle fallout 

Dead skin cells within the follicle usually shed gradually and are dislodged onto the skin’s surface. In people with overactive sebaceous glands — (including almost everyone during puberty) — these cells are shed more rapidly. When this happens, the dead skin cells mix with the excess sebum and form a plug in the follicle, preventing the skin from finishing its natural process of renewal.  



The bacteria exists in all skin types; it’s part of the skin’s natural sebum maintenance system. Once a follicle is plugged, however, acne bacteria multiply rapidly, creating the chemical reaction that results in inflammation in the follicle and surrounding skin.  



When your body comes in contact with unwanted bacteria, it sends an army of white blood cells to attack the intruders. This process is called chemotaxis; or, the inflammatory response. This response is what makes pimples red, swollen and painful. The inflammatory response is different for everyone. 

Coconut oil – Everything you need to know

With the rising popularity of  coconut oil, many people have become interested in how to use coconut oil for skin care. 

Unfortunately, because applying coconut oil to the skin is a relatively new concept for most people, the whole process can seem confusing, and slightly intimidating. 

I’ve put together a simple guide that explains everything you need to know about how to use coconut oil for skin care. We’ll talk benefits, different ways to use coconut oil in your skin care routine, and how to know when coconut oil is not right for your skin. 

Coconut Oil vs Coconut Butter 

Manufacturers produce coconut oil through four methods: centrifuged, cold-pressed, fermented, and expeller pressed. While the mechanics of each method is different, it all the same basic process: 

  • Take the white meat from a mature coconut 
  • Remove all water, fibre, and protein. 
  • That’s it! 

 You’re left with a shelf-stable oil that is solid at room temperature, has a high smoke point, and is full of MCTs (medium chain triglycerides). 

What are MCTs? 

MCTs are a type of saturated fat. Your body can break them down easily, and uses them as a quick source of energy. In addition,  scientists are studying the benefits  of MCTs for many different conditions. They have shown particular promise for blood sugar balance, cognitive function, and heart health. 

Coconut Butter 

Coconut butter is made when some of the white meat flesh is added back into the oil. This gives the butter more fibre, a more solid texture, and makes it less prone to melting when heat is applied. It will soften, sure, but not turn to an outright liquid. 

Why Use Coconut Oil for Skin Care 

Coconut oil is the oil extracted from the edible, fleshy “meat” of a coconut. It’s a natural saturated fat and is compromised almost entirely of medium-chain fatty acids. While that may not seem like anything extraordinary, coconut oil is one of the only sources of medium-chain fatty acids, which is what makes it so incredibly for the skin. 

Lauric acid, the predominant medium-chain fatty acid found in coconut oil, has proven antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory benefits. Other chemical substances in coconut oil, including phytonutrients and polyphenols, act as antioxidants and have other tissue-supportive and tissue-protective properties.

Studies show that these beneficial properties not only make coconut oil an incredible moisturizer, it also helps to reduce bacteria associated with acne, infections, and other skin conditions, and can improve wound healing by increasing collagen cross-linking.  

But what if I have oily/dry/combination skin? 

Even with the literature in favour of using coconut oil for skin health, many people get hung up on the idea of adding oil to their skin – or assume that because they have oily skin, coconut oil skin care practices won’t work for them. But good news… coconut oil works for all skin types. 

Dry skin occurs when our skin lacks appropriate oil, resulting in rough, dry or flaky skin. Applying a nourishing oil like coconut oil topically helps restore the lipid barrier, which reduces water loss, inhibits peroxidative and oxidative damage, and improves antimicrobial function. 

If your skin overproduces oil, applying nourishing oils helps exfoliate skin because it breaks up and dissolves excess oil without stripping the skin of its natural lipid barrier. In fact, while sebum’s association with acne is poorly understood, some research suggests it might have more to do with sebum quality, not quantity. This is why practices, like  cleaning your face with coconut oil or using nourishing oils as a  facial moisturizer, can work incredibly well for all skin types. 

The Best Coconut Oil for Skin Care 

While it may seem like a rather simple and straightforward product, there are an endless variety of brands and types of coconut oil on the market, which makes  choosing the best coconut oil for skin care all the more confusing.  

To put it simply, there are three main types of coconut oil: unrefined coconut oil, refined coconut oil, and liquid coconut oil. 

Unrefined coconut oil is coconut oil that has been extracted from fresh coconut meat, using methods such as  wet-milling  or  quick drying. This process keeps all the naturally occurring phytonutrients and polyphenols intact. 

Refined coconut oil is oil that has been extracted from previously dried coconut meat with chemical solvents or through physical extraction methods. Coconut oil produced this way must be purified through refining, which means some of the beneficial nutrients in coconut oil are lost. 

The last type, liquid coconut oil, is coconut oil with lauric acid removed. What’s left is two other medium-chain fatty acids with lower melting points.  

So, which coconut oil is best? 

Organic, unrefined coconut oil is the best coconut oil for skin care because it contains all the naturally occurring phytonutrients and polyphenols.   

How to Use Coconut Oil for Skin Care 

Before we move into all the fantastic ways to use coconut oil for skin care, I highly recommend testing coconut oil on a small area of your skin before moving forward with any new protocols. It’s best to apply coconut oil to your face and body in the same spot for 3-4 days in a row, which will allow you to know if you have any abnormal reactions to coconut oil. 

While coconut oil is great for all skin types and works well for most people, there is no such thing as one size fits all skin care. We are all incredibly individual people with varying genetic backgrounds, and just because something does or doesn’t work for another person does not mean it will or won’t work for you. Keep an open mind, and be willing to use the feedback your skin gives you to find what protocols will work best for your skin. 

Coconut Oil for Face Washing 

You can  wash your face with coconut oil, or a combination of oils, using a protocol called the oil cleansing method. Using the principle of “like dissolves like” – the basic concept is this: the natural oil you massage into your skin dissolves the oil that has hardened on your skin with impurities and/or clogged your pores. When you apply steam from a warm  wash cloth  to your face, the pores open and the natural oil lifts any dirt or makeup out of pours, which can be easily wiped away.  

Coconut Oil for Moisturizing 

You’ve probably read a lot of back and forth about coconut oil for moisturizing. So, let’s put speculation aside, and look at the literature. There are four studies that have looked at the moisturizing effects of coconut oil. When looking at treatment for conditions associated with dry, itchy skin, studies show coconut oil significant improves dryness and does so better in comparison to other oils because of its antibacterial and emollient effects.

Studies also show that coconut oil reduces protein loss remarkably for both damaged and undamaged hair because of its molecular weight, and straight linear chain.  Lastly, coconut oil has been found to improve collagen cross-linking and increase antioxidant enzyme activity when applied regularly.

While these studies don’t prove that coconut oil works for everyone, it does show coconut oil is an effective, and superior moisturizer for face and body.

Coconut Oil for Stretch Marks 

Because coconut oil improves collagen cross-linking and can restore lipid barrier function, it also may be an effective treatment for stretch marks. While there is no scientific literature that exists that shows coconut oil improves stretch marks, the beneficial properties of coconut oil, and the empirical data that exists suggests coconut oil can reduce or prevent stretch marks. 

Coconut Oil for Skin Conditions 

If you suffer from skin conditions associated with dry skin such as atopic dermatitis (eczema), or xerosis, studies show coconut oil can improve skin hydration and lipid barrier function, and reduce skin infections.

Coconut oil was also found to improve wound healing by increasing collagen cross-linking and antioxidant enzyme activity, which suggest coconut oil might be a sufficient way to treat minor cuts, scrapes, and abrasions. Personally, this is why I recommend applying coconut oil to many common skin conditions such as razor burn, ingrown hairs, and yes – pimples that have been “picked at.” 

And lastly, through a practice called  oil pulling, coconut oil has been found to reduce plaque-related gingivitis.

Coconut Oil for Hair 

Because of coconut oil’s molecular weight and shape, coconut oil is able to penetrate deeply into hair, which reduces protein loss for both damaged and undamaged hair.

Coconut oil may also improve dandruff and dry scalp because of its antimicrobial properties. If you’re looking to get started using coconut oil for hair, trying doing a  coconut oil hair mask and consider following it up with a  DIY apple cider vinegar hair rinse. 

Got lice? Coconut oil, in combination with anise spray, was found to be significantly more effective than pediculicide for eliminating lice.  Hopefully, this will never be information you’ll have to put to use. 



Coconut Oil for Acne 


Does Coconut Oil Cure Acne? Technically speaking, coconut oil does not cure acne. 

But it does help with acne to a good extent. That’s because it contains antimicrobials that kill excess acne bacteria. 


When acne bacteria multiply to a degree that gets out of hand, inflammation takes place and dead skin cells are shedding at faster rate. These dead cells then clog pores easily, causing pimples to pop up and forming acne. 


Preliminary research suggest coconut oil may be an effective treatment for certain types of acne, including Propionibacterium acnes, and has the potential to act as an alternative treatment for acne vulgaris.[15][16] 


Because of its antimicrobial properties, coconut oil was found to be 15 times more effective at inhibiting bacteria growth associated with acne over benzoyl peroxide (BPO), a popular topical antibiotic medication for mild to moderate acne. Studies have also found coconut oil effectively reduces inflammation and swelling associated with acne because of its anti-inflammatory properties. 


Another way coconut oil benefits acne is that it helps to detox your body if taken oraly. Toxins are the prime cause of acne. That’s because when you weigh your body down with dioxins, steroid hormones andacidic ash from meat and other highly processed food, your liver suffers as a result. 


One of your liver functions is to deactivate androgens, which are hormones that trigger your oil glands to secrete skin oil. When your liver gets overloaded with toxins (“thanks” to your junk intake), deactivation of androgens becomes less effective leading to more androgens not deactivated.  


Result? More skin oil will be produced, and your skin becomes oily and acne-prone. 


So, when you use coconut oil for acne treatment, it helps to strengthen your liver so that your liver can effectively deactivate the androgens and hence, prevent excessive skin oil secretion. 


When you got less skin oil, acne bacteria will stop multiplying since less food is present for them and your dead skin cells will shed at normal rate, reducing the odds of them clogging your pores. 


Despite the fact that coconut oil benefits acne, it’s never a permanent cure for acne since acne is not an infection like flu where you simply just kill the flu virus with coconut oil and it’s gone, but rather a condition that is primarily caused by unhealthy way of living. 

A dramatic makeover to your diet and lifestyle is the key to an effective and long-lasting cure for acne. 


While this does not mean coconut oil is the solution to acne, it does suggest coconut oil might help improve acne for some people. If you’re looking to experiment with using coconut oil for acne, I recommend first using coconut oil as a face wash. You can also apply coconut oil directly to acne as a moisturizer, which may also improve collagen cross-linking (wound healing), antioxidant enzyme activity, and lipid barrier function.  

BONUS! Yes, coconut oil can do that. 


So, what other random ways can you use coconut oil for skin care? Coconut oil can be used in place of shaving cream because when applied, it creates a moisturizing layer of protection on the skin. Many conventional shaving creams or foams tend to increase drying, making skin prone to becoming dry or itchy after showering. 


Coconut oil is also a fantastic massage oil and personal lubricant. It’s soft, has a nice scent, and doesn’t dry out or get “sticky” with friction. (Note: it is unclear whether coconut oil works with latex condoms, so if you don’t want babies, use another natural lubricant with condoms.) 


Because of its antimicrobial properties, coconut oil also works great as a deodorant. You can use it by itself, with baking soda. 


How to Know if Coconut Oil is Not Right for Your Skin 


As mentioned before, there is no such thing as one size fits all skin care. While coconut oil is completely safe, and has no reported reactions or allergenic effects, it’s best to test coconut oil on a small area of your skin prior to using any new coconut oil skin care protocols. 


Coconut is often hailed as the ultimate health food. But coconut, just like any other food, can be dangerous if you’re allergic to it. Coconut oil allergies are not as prevalent as other types of allergies, such as peanut allergies, but they do occur. 


If your skin becomes more dry or flaky with the use of coconut oil, you’ll want to stop using coconut oil until you can further assess the underlying cause of your dryness. Coconut oil is not a drying ingredient, however – it can be drying for people who suffer from dehydrated skin. 


Dehydrated skin is skin that lacks water, even in the presence of sufficient oil. Because of coconut oil’s molecular weight and shape, it penetrates deeply into skin, which may create the feeling of dryness on the surface of the skin.  


The most effective treatment for dehydrated skin is to drink sufficient water, and balance your water intake with appropriate levels of electrolytes like sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. To do this, you can add a pinch of unprocessed sea salt to the water you drink, which will give your cells the minerals they need to absorb water appropriately. 


So, what if coconut oil doesn’t work for me? 

If coconut oil isn’t right for your skin, rest assured – there are plenty of other oils you can use. I recommend first trying out sweet almond oil or jojoba oil, as they are both great for all skin types. 

What Does SPF Mean? –  let’s talk about sun protection!

There are two reasons why I chose this topic for my article; first because it’s the sunbathing season; and on the other hand, because it’s the debut of our long-awaited PANDHY’S™ sunscreen products.

Every person’s skin has a certain tolerance for sun, and SPF (Sun Protection Factor) multiplies that tolerance.

If you can spend 15 minutes in the sun without getting burned, applying the appropriate amount of an SPF 15 product would allow you to spend 15 times 15 minutes in the sun.

Minutes to burn without sunscreen x SPF number = maximum sun exposure time

But before you grab your calculator and head for the beach, you should know that this equation is not always accurate.

First of all, people usually use far less sunscreen than the amount used in the testing phase, in laboratory conditions. In the real world, the average sun worshipper uses half the amount of sunscreen used in the laboratory, which can result in a sunburn in half the time.

Furthermore, despite waterproof or sweatproof labels, all sunscreens decrease in effectiveness when exposed to water or sweat, so regular reapplication is very important to secure ongoing protection.

We can define SPF in another way, describing what percentage of UV rays does the sunscreen absorb based on the SPF. For example, that SPF 15 sunscreen would allow 1/15 of the UV rays through, which means that’s about 6.7% of the rays get through the sunscreen.

Here’s where it’s getting interesting. Using this formula, an SPF of 45 allows your skin to absorb 2.2% of the UV rays. As you can see, SPF increased threefold, but the protection of the skin only increased by 4.5%.

Some use that data to claim that SPF 15 is really all you need since higher SPFs don’t add that much protection at all, so higher factor number is only a marketing gimmick.

Because of the confusion about UVB absorption, in 2011 the FDA proposed a cap on SPF numbers. They suggested using “30 plus” label on each product if the SPF was higher than 30. Besides, they were considering banning factor numbers above 50, but finally, it did not happen, and we can still find these products on the shelves.

Thirty was the decided cap because above that, the percentage of UVB absorbed and overall protection of the skin increases only slightly, but people may misinterpret these higher SPF numbers as a much higher level of protection or even a guarantee of all-day protection.

Here is a comparative chart to illustrate this:

SPF % UV absorbed
2 50
4 70
8 87.5
15 93.3
30 96.7
50 98


Often studies show that those who use a higher SPF are more likely to get melanoma (skin cancer), possibly because they’re tricked into thinking they’re safe from the sun and stay out longer.

Tan wisely and enjoy the good weather!

With love,

Gertrud Borbíró



White Kaolin clay, is a very fine and light clay that has natural absorbency properties. White Cosmetic clay is found in virtually all powdered and dry cosmetics and most wet cosmetics, including soaps, scrubs, poultices, deodorants, facial powders, and masks. It is the mildest of all clays and is also suitable for people with sensitive skin. It helps stimulate circulation to the skin while gently exfoliating and cleansing it. It does not draw oils or waters from the skin, so it can be used on dry skin types, too.

The high absorbent quality is not to be confused with drying/dehydration properties! The kaolin we use is quarry mined from naturally occurring deposits and is water washed. Due to its unrefined nature, the dried clay is an off-white colour, and turns slightly brownish when mixed with water.


A low shrub with large red flowers, growing on dry, sandy places on mountain-slopes, 3,000 to 8,000 feet above sea-level in several provinces of Peru, especially near the city of Huanuco. The root, as found in commerce, consists of long, cylindrical pieces, varying in thickness from 1/4 to 1/2 inch or more (long Rhatany), or a short, thick portion, knotted, and as large as a man’s fist (short, or stumpy Rhatany). The difference is caused by the diggers, the former being removed by them with care, and the latter torn up with force. The bark of the root is thin, readily separable, rough and scaly; of a dark, reddish-brown colour outside, and bright brownish-red within. It breaks with a somewhat fibrous fracture, is tough and difficult to powder, and has a strong, purely astringent taste, tingeing the saliva red when chewed. The central woody portion is very hard and almost tasteless. Neither bark nor wood has any marked odour. As the virtues of Rhatany reside in the bark, the smaller pieces are preferable.

A strong tincture of these roots in brandy is used in Portugal to impart roughness to port wines.

The genus Krameria was named after Kramer, a Hungarian physician and botanist. The name Rhatany is said to describe the creeping character of the plant, in the language used by the Peruvian Indians, while its Spanish name is derived from its dental properties.

The dried roots of two species besides the Peruvian are official: Krameria Ixené, or Savanilla Rhatany, and Krameria Argentea, known in commerce as Para or Brazilian Rhatany.

Krameria was dropped from the United States Pharmacopceia but retained in the British Pharmacopceia and National Formulary.